Human Resource Development Programme

54 points form

Some constables or police officers who have taken casual leave for 2 or 3 days actually stay away for a very long time or remain absent without permission. This has an adverse effect on the working and discipline of the police station.

In the North Region, Mumbai 25 officers and 216 constables who had been punished two or more times for remaining absent, were investigated. The punishment which is recommended is generally 10 days unpaid leave and Rs 100/- fine for 10 days of absence and 20 days unpaid leave and a fine of Rs 200/- for 20 days of absence. Why does the staff remain absent? When we asked this question to the reporting officers, we got only one answer, "they have just got into the habit of staying absent."

One can get addicted to chewing tobacco, smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol but how can one get addicted to staying absent? If one constantly stays absent, the leave becomes unpaid leave—this results in financial loss and could even invite severe punishment. There is also a chance that the employee might lose his job. So then why does the staff remain absent? This is a very important question.

If an employee remains absent knowing that it involves the risk of losing his job, does that mean that he is very well off financially and does not need his job? When this issue was investigated the answer was in the negative.

This issue of absenteeism was discussed with the absentee constables of the North Region, Mumbai and those at my earlier postings. The technique of free association was used for this discussion. During this discussion, 60 different reasons for staying absent came up; they ranged from marital discord to fear of the khaki uniform. This meant that absenteeism was not a bad habit, it was the symptom of 60 different diseases. Also, the majority of the constables were very poorly motivated. The 60 reasons (see Appendix 3) were also responsible for this. The absentee employees do not improve after severe punishment because that does not tackle the root cause of absenteeism. The punishment inflicted on the erring employee fails to have a positive preventive impact on the other employees. Since they know the real reason or problem behind his absenteeism, they sympathise with this employee and in fact, hold a grudge against the punishing officer. Also, their love for the department lessens and in general there is always a feeling of indifference about one's work. Nobody thinks about or for me so why should I think or feel for others? This feeling starts increasing. The sensitivity towards the problems of the public is destroyed.

At the level of the police station, a Police Inspector or some other senior police officer can take on the role of a counsellor and can try to help the staff to resolve as many of the 60 reasons as possible. To essay the role of the counsellor effectively, the senior police officers need to know about all the capabilities of the constables.

According to recent research, every employee has the following capabilities:

  1. Physical capability
  2. Intellectual ability
  3. Emotional capability
  4. Spiritual capability.

Once a year a remark is written about the performance of the constable. If this is written after an in-depth study and after taking into consideration all relevant aspects, it will be an appropriate evaluation of that constable and will help in increasing his efficiency. During my various postings, I carried out a detailed SWOT analysis of an constable's good points/strong points (Strength), his limitations (Weakness), the chance of increasing the efficiency (Opportunity), and what could be the obstacles (Threats) on the way to improving the efficiency of the police force. A 54-item form was developed to gather information about the behavioural traits of the constable, his health and family, financial position, his thoughts on religion, social circumstances, achievements related to his job, his values and so on. This form was prepared in triplicate for all constables. One copy each would be given to the police station, the Dy. Commissioner of Police office and to the office of the Addl. Police Commissioner. All the information would be recorded by the Police Inspector. It was arranged to get the opinions and views of the Asst. Commissioner of Police and Dy. Commissioner of Police in order to find ways for increasing the motivation of the constables and officers. Officers of the ranks between Police Sub-Inspector to Dy. Commissioner of Police are constantly interacting with the constables so they can give full scope to the strengths of the constables while trying to make improvements in their areas of weakness. That is the main objective behind filling up this kind of form. At the same time these senior officers would be able to take a fresh introspective look at their own strengths and weaknesses. This aim was achieved gradually. (54 points form, Appendix 2)

How should the police `listen'?

Hundreds of people approach the Addl. Commissioner of Police with complaints. He himself cannot personally resolve any of the complaints. The complainant is sent back to the police station. Many of the complaints are such that there is nothing we can do to help the complainant about them. But we can satisfy them by listening to their complaint sincerely. As kids all of us are taught how to speak but we are not taught how to listen. If the following 10 tips are followed, then the number of people approaching senior officers and those making appeals of complaint will drastically reduce and the complainants will be satisfied to a large extent. That is the reason why we got constables and officers to learn by heart the following 10 points.

Do the following while listening to a complainant

  1. Keep quiet.
  2. Make the atmosphere comfortable for the complainant so that he will be at ease and will talk comfortably.
  3. Ensure that the complainant realises that you are listening to him.
  4. Remove any obstacles that might occur during the course of the conversation.
  5. Put yourself in the shoes of the complainant while listening to his complaint.
  6. Stay calm.
  7. Keep a check on your anger.
  8. Even if the complainant retorts by asking counter questions loudly or starts criticising the police, do not take that to heart.
  9. Ask the complainant questions.
  10. After hearing the complainant out, tell him in what way you can help him. In case you cannot help him, tell him why you cannot help him, in a very calm manner.

As the technique of how to listen to complainants was learnt and implemented, the number of complainants wanting to meet the Additional Police Commissioner and wanting to send complaint appeals decreased.

Every constable's name on the board

`What's in a name?' Shakespeare says, `A rose by any other name would smell as sweet'. I beg to differ. Our name is our most favourite word of the language. When we go to the Police Superintendent's office of a district where we had worked earlier, our attention first goes to the board which carries the names of officers who have worked there previously. When we see our name on the board it gives us immense pleasure. But what about the constables who is going to spend his entire life in the department? Where is his name written? Nowhere. So when we restructured the working of a police station, we put up a board in each beat office and made sure that the name and buckle number of each constable was put up on it. There is much in a name. Actually, in every police station of the north region, Mumbai, our experience was that everything was done just for the name.

Team spirit through inter-police station competitions

At a police parade, one sees 150/200 constables and officers standing in attention, marching at one command, obeying orders and saluting their senior officers. This sight might make a third person, not related to police affairs, think that there is wonderful discipline at police stations! But what is the reality? According to sociology, if there are only two persons on an island, a competition starts brewing between them. They start competing with each other for their own vested interests. It is difficult to find true team spirit in the approximately 200 people working at a police station as they come from various geographical areas, varied social, cultural, economic and political backgrounds and are in a more secure position compared to others as they have a government job. The police station has a politics of its own. A lot of time of the senior officers is spent in ensuring discipline and team spirit. A lot of unfortunate incidents take place—anonymous complaints or complaints made under a false name, departmental inquiries which stem from bitterness, and so on. There are ego hassles when a junior officer is promoted over his senior officer because of the policy of reservation. This could lead to a rise in the attitude of disobeying orders. It becomes difficult to mete out justice in all disagreements/quarrels because while trying to figure out the root cause of the quarrel, even the senior officers are unable to determine what came first, the egg or the chicken. So generally, it has an adverse effect on the working of the police station. I found a solution to this problem. In the 14th century Nicholas Machiavelli gave some advice to the princes of that time, on how to rule their kingdoms. I find that advice very valuable. Civil service officers could be called modern day princes! "If there is an increase in the complaints and squabbles of the citizens and there are signs of revolt or strife, the prince should not waste his energy in resolving the internal issues, rather he should attack the neighbouring country", is the advice that Machiavelli gives. This is the ideal method to distract attention from the internal strife. Every police station was assigned a competing police station. Every month team games like cricket, kabaddi, volleyball, tug of war, etc were organized between the rival teams, a drama competition for the plays which depicted training on solving crimes, was also organized.

The winning police station between the two competing police station teams would be rewarded with a trophy and publicly applauded at the sports venue. This led to a reduction in the internal conflicts and groupism within police stations and there was increased determination in every police station to win against a common rival. This same competition was later used to increase the level of knowledge of the staff, to improve administration, and to emphasize on investigation of crimes while maintaining law and order within the locality and ultimately also to increase the feeling of security within the public, helping them in their all-round development, and for the overall improvement in the working of the police station. The quality of the work improved. This experiment proved that if competition is introduced skilfully among employees in Indian bureaucracy, it brings about a general improvement.

Introduction to the work of the greats

Our name should be associated with a person who is recognized as successful in our society or while leading our life, we should have an idol we can follow. This is a fundamental requirement of every individual. In case of policemen, this fundamental need is not satisfactorily fulfilled.

The contents of the complaints received in the police station reveals that society is full of the evils of violence, terrorism, revenge, financial scams, unhealthy competition, fraud, and deceit. We policemen feel as if there is not a single person in our society who is worth emulating.

To give them the opportunity of meeting such an ideal individual, if not in person, at least through books, we implemented the programme of `Introduction to the work of the greats'.

I have often experienced that in other states, the people and police of Maharashtra are appreciated a lot. I am often asked why the administration in Maharashtra was superior to the other states, and I would be unable to give a satisfactory answer. But I would unfailingly say one thing—Maharashtra was the land of greats like Phule, Shahu, Agarkar and Ambedkar.

Very few people in the police force know about these greats. I wanted my men to know the people who had shaped Maharashtra. Every constable had to study the life and work of that great person whose birth or death anniversary fell in a certain month, he had to prepare a speech on that person, and in every Mohalla Committee meeting they would be required to speak about that great person. A photograph of the great person would be acquired and while celebrating his birth or death anniversary that photo would be garlanded. Then the policemen and the other members of the committee would make speeches. Initially, they would stand up to speak more due to my pressure than out of willingness. But with time and persistence they gained practice and became confident of public speaking. Their knowledge increased.

To increase the efficiency of the police force, it is not enough to conduct regular parades, or rote learn the criminal sections of the law and other rules. Recent research has proved that there should be an increase in the profundity of the social awareness and understanding of employees if their efficiency is to be increased.

All employees are bogged down by worries like insufficient salary, extra work, and housing inconveniences. And it is equally a fact that as Addl. Commisioner of Police I cannot solve these problems for them. During the course of my job, earlier, in other police units, I had asked all the staff to learn by heart the tremendous work done by great social reformists like Phule, Shahu, Agarkar, Ambedkar and Gadgebaba. On learning about the work of these greats the staff realised that there were still many social constituents who had far more serious problems. There were many who could hardly manage two square meals a day. "Our problems are not the only issues that the government has to tackle. Compared to these people, the government is taking good care of us. Besides, these social reformists dedicated their entire lives for the cause of the downtrodden people; the least we can do is to do our job honestly". This thought process led to a gradual change in the perspective of the staff on the economically and socially underprivileged sections of the society. Thanks to this experiment there was a rapid change in the outlook of the staff on themselves, the government, and the society.

Constables who give speeches

One of the important strengths of the North Region Mumbai Police force is their quick response. Within a minimum of three minutes and a maximum of nine minutes of receiving a message on the phone in the police control room, a police vehicle reaches the scene of the incident. The vehicle very often has lower rank police staff. Some do not know how and what to say to the people. They do not have the skills to conduct a dialogue with the incensed mob that has been created by the sudden incident. Lack of a proper interaction is the root cause of all dissension, be it a simple tiff of a husband and wife or high aggression like an Indo-Pak war. A bid was made to increase the public speaking skills of every constable so that he would be able to hold a dialogue with the mob till reinforcements and senior officers of the force arrived on the scene.

Efforts were initialized to increase the social awareness of the constables and officers of the North region. Initially, I gave orders regarding the Mohalla Committee, Kamsudhar Mandal, and that each member of the police station will write an essay on great personalities, learn it by heart and deliver a speech on it. Everyone said that not more than 10% of the staff would be able to make a speech. But the amazing thing was that the number of people making a speech lasting from 5 minutes to 45 minutes reached up to 80%. I firmly believed that man can change, that he can change his bad habits for good ones. I began the process from my days at SRPF Pune. The aim of SRPF Group 1 was to raise the level of knowledge of every jawan and officer. It was decided that every jawan will raise his level of knowledge to such an extent that he will be capable of instructing other jawans. There were about 1200 jawans in SRPF Group 1 but only 11 of them were qualified to be instructors. As per our aim, all 1200 jawans were going to become instructors. All officers were instructed to work towards this aim. On hearing of my plan to make instructors out of each and every jawan, many officers made fun of the idea. They thought that the new boss, was completely ignorant about the SRPF. They would openly say that forget 100%, not even 10% of the jawans would become instructors. But I was determined to go ahead with my decision. I wanted each jawan to learn the study material given to him, to know it so well that he would be able to teach others. I gave orders accordingly, with the help of many management skills and techniques I developed an appropriate game-plan and set down to work. Two months after starting this programme, I made SRPF jawan Mane stand in front of all his colleagues. Mane was a wrestler. Every morning and evening he would train at the gym and would participate in various local wrestling encounters. He had even reached the semi-finals of the prestigious Maharashtra Kesari tournament. Whenever he met me, he would first bow down and touch my feet and tell me about the latest tournament and prize money he had won. As he was constantly engrossed in wrestling, he didn't have much to do with studying or knowledge of any other kind. Nobody would ever ask him about the study material. But the same wrestler Mane was standing in front of 500 jawans just two months after starting this programme. In this meeting Mane taught everyone one lesson and a lot of officers along with me were witness to this teaching session. All of us were wonderstruck by his style of talking, his mastery over the material and his confidence of speaking in public. Many officers were moved to tears by the fact that Mane had taught as well as any other capable instructor. What is the secret behind a wrestler jawan like Mane becoming an instructor? How could a widow peon from Akola, Mrs Ramabai Bhopale, speak on all programmes including the Kamsudhar Mandal? Sargundas Bhosale, a jawan from the Pardhi community of Amravati could hardly speak Marathi fluently—how could he deliver a beautiful speech on great personalities? How did 80% of the staff in the North region start giving speeches? The famed Pavlov had conducted an experiment on a dog. We used this same experiment on all employees and junior officers everywhere, including Mane. We had raised the level of knowledge of all the employees by creating a specific environment.

Man's behaviour can be changed with the help of a specific environment or circumstances. A person's surroundings create or hamper his behaviour. So man is a puppet in the hands of circumstances. Man is a slave of habits. One can get addicted to bad habits out of one's own free will. At the same time these bad habits can be replaced by good habits, and this is exactly what was proved by the Russian physician and psychologist Pavlov with his experiment on a dog. The experiment is famous as `Pavlov's dog'.

Any hungry dog salivates on seeing food. He does not salivate on hearing a bell ring or on hearing any other sound. Pavlov had inserted a tube inside the dog's salivary gland and the other end of the tube hung outside. When the hungry dog was shown food, his salivary gland would get activated and the saliva he excreted entered the tube, which Pavlov could observe. To salivate at the sight of food is a natural instinct; it did not have to be taught to the dog. Pavlov went a step further. Just before showing food to the dog, he would ring a bell. He did it many times. So an association was built between the bell and food—when the bell rings, food appears. Pavlov went even further in that experiment. He would ring the bell but not give any food and still the dog would salivate. Pavlov's dog would salivate at the sound of the bell because when the bell rang he would get food and the food made him salivate. An association was created between the bell, food and salivation. The ringing of the bell got associated with the natural instinct of salivating. The important aspect to be noted here is that for the association between the bell and the salivating to be created, both had to be repeated over and over again.

Pavlov created special circumstances and brought about a change in the behaviour of the dog. Pavlov's dog exhibited behaviour which other dogs did not know. There is no connection between the sound of a bell and the act of salivating but the dog did learn to associate the two and started salivating at the sound of the bell. In psychological parlance this experiment of Pavlov is known as `conditioned reflex'.

In the North region, Mumbai I was following up in a scientific way the progress of the staff in the curriculum I wanted them to study, just like I had done at the SRPF. There I had created circumstances wherein the staff would have to study the material I had allocated to them. Because of my regular follow-up, wrestler Mane had no choice but to study. That is the reason why wrestler Mane studied what no other wrestler could study. The officers who kept saying that everybody cannot become an instructor, were proved wrong. Just like Pavlov's dog could be taught something which did not come to him naturally, oratory capabilities were created among the constables and officers of the North region though they were not used to studying. In short, if a senior officer sets his mind to it, he can inculcate good habits in his staff and get rid of their bad habits.

Senior officers are the single most important factor in creating a work culture. Before this, in earlier days I had conducted several experiments at many places to increase the level of knowledge of the police staff. I was tremendously successful in these attempts. A lot of people would ask me why the programmes started by me would not continue among the staff and officers after my transfer to another place. Again, Pavlov's experiment has the answer.

Pavlov's next step in his experiment was that he would ring the bell but he stopped giving food to the dog after ringing the bell. He did this repeatedly; as a result, after some days the dog stopped salivating at the sound of the bell. Through this experiment Pavlov established one more psychological principle. He could undo the change in the dog's behaviour by creating specific circumstances. This experiment proves that the officers who came after me were not consistent in their implementation of the programme. It is not enough to just issue an order. Such experiments/programmes are not successful if they are not consistently followed up.

Regular Evaluation

The working of the North Region police station is centred on the Senior Police Inspector. Even though there are 4 Police Inspector and up to 30 officers of the grade of Asst. Police Inspector/Police Sub-Inspector at his beck and call, every decision, be it small or big, is taken by the Senior Police Inspector. Due to outdated systems, tremendous workload and lack of management skills, the Police Inspector depend upon crisis management and superficial public relations to run the police station. They just about manage to deal with the situation with the help of certain officers and constabulary. But large numbers of constabulary and officers are neglected. That creates a herd mentality in the police force. Access to a uniform, a baton in hand and lack of any supervision by senior officers creates constables like Constable More from Mumbai who abused an innocent girl in a police chowky itself, and brought shame to the entire police force.

The concept of restructuring of the working of a police station was implemented with definite aims—to keep an eye on every constable, to guide him and to encourage his personal development. All the constables present at a police station were allotted more or less equitably to the Asst. Police Inspector/Police Sub-Inspector present at a police station. Similarly, at the beat level, they were allotted to the supervising Police Inspector. At least once a week, the Asst. Police Inspector/Police Sub-Inspector would hold a discussion with the constable assigned to him and would check his progress on the curriculum given to him. The officer would evaluate him and write a grade for him in the register given to them. The Police Inspector, that is the group leader, would evaluate every constable in his group once every fortnight and would note down a grade for him in the register. The Senior Police Inspector would carry out the evaluation once every month. In this way the senior officers kept an eye on every staff member. Every month the gradation report of every employee would be generated in the office of the Addl. Commissioner of Police and this facilitated the monitoring of the employee. During surprise visits, it became possible to check the progress of the staff member and the grade given to him. There was increased peer pressure on lazy staff members as work began to be evaluated on a regular basis. So even without imposing financial fines or any other punishment there was a definite improvement in their overall development.

Implementation of the programme: a new type of learning

When a new programme is implemented, it is a proven fact that there will be risks involved. The biggest risk is that the person who initiates the programme becomes the first victim of the bullet. The second risk is that a lot of people are just waiting for the chance to prove how the new experiment is all wrong. The third risk is the tremendous amount of hard work that needs to be put in, accompanied by heaps of criticism. I started my work only after taking for granted all these risks.

I implemented only one programme at a time. The reason behind this was that man's brain can effectively do only one thing at a time. A thousand-mile journey starts with the first step and we can take only one step at a time. This is the same technique that they use at an airport. Even if numerous aircraft are circling in the sky simultaneously, the Air Traffic Control lets only one aircraft land at a time. If two programmes are implemented simultaneously, the percentage of their success reduces drastically.

I implemented the programme entitled "A new direction in police administration" in Pune (rural), Satara and Akola districts. It was necessary to change every staff member's perspective if this programme had to be executed successfully. I have experienced that it is extremely difficult to change people's perspectives and convince them to let go of old systems to adopt new ones. Letting go of one's old perspectives and methods can be as distressing as accepting the reality of death. For the first two or three months the staff and the officers are unwilling to accept the new changes. They neglect the new programme and greet it with comments like, "This is some new fad. Bosses who have recently taken charge have this tendency to start some kind of fad when they join and later they forget all about it."

In the North region, after I started this programme, most people signed the circular as a routine and handed it over to their assistants. But because of my follow-up and feedback system everyone realised that they would have to study. There was no way out. Then everyone got down to studying. There were whispers of complaints all around - `Is this all that the police have to do? What is the connection between study and hardcore police work? Is this going to help in solving a crime? What difference is it going to make in the law and order situation?' Some newspapers carried news items saying that the police were fed up of Khopade's programmes. Officers who were incapable of accepting change or those who had a negative mindset started making trouble.

I was unperturbed because I knew that according to group dynamics such a programme goes through three stages. When such a scheme is initiated, at the beginning nobody can grasp the aim or direction of the programme. Everyone tells each other that the only reason they are doing it is because of the pressure of their seniors. They are all confused. This stage is known as the Chaotic stage. This stage lasts for the first four to five months. Some perceptive officers comprehend the aim of the programme. They maintain consistency in implementing the programme. Once the realisation dawns that there is no choice but to execute the programme, all get down to studying. After some months, most raise the query that in the study material some issues seem appropriate and relevant but what about the subjects that seem irrelevant? These issues then started getting discussed during our meetings. This is the second stage. It is known as the Communication stage.

Once the discussion is over about 70-80% of the people are convinced about the importance of the programme and they get emotionally involved in it. This stage is called the Emotional stage.

At the beginning of the implementation of the programme the speed is very slow and there is a fair amount of opposition. After a period of time, with lesser effort, greater speed of execution is achieved. When a spacecraft is sent to the moon, at the beginning because of the gravitational force, the spacecraft requires a tremendous amount of fuel. Once it goes out of the influence of earth's gravity, lesser fuel is required yet it goes at a very great speed. The progress of the North region was just like that of a toddler taking its first steps—the crawling child stood up, the standing child started walking and the walking child started running.

New Type of Punishment

To pull the huge chariot of administration in a different direction requires a lot of power and hard work. If I had to bring about this change forcibly, I had, as an Addl. Commissioner of Police, the great power of punishing the staff. I had the authority to impose any punishment ranging from a strong warning to suspension. But I want to very proudly note here that not a single officer or staff member was punished in any way for not studying the new curriculum or for not implementing the new programme. Also, no officer or staff member was given any financial reward or any appreciation in writing even if he had absorbed the study material really well or had implemented the new scheme in an excellent manner. In spite of that the staff studied the new curriculum and learnt it well. That is because other than the carrot and the stick there are 32 different ways of inspiring employees. Out of these we made use of 19 methods. If a staff member who is not studying is punished, he is neither fearful nor embarrassed of the punishment. They are of the view that it is the right of the superior officer to punish for any mistake or negligence, so they just keep quiet, read whatever punishment has been meted out to them and pocket that piece of paper. But I used a different tactic on staff members who did not study, and that was peer group pressure. From my observation of the SRP jawans I had realised that staff members are hungry for respect, honour, dignity as well as connectedness. In an appropriate environment these needs of theirs get satisfied. They get job satisfaction and pleasure if their work is suitably and fairly evaluated. They want to maintain a high degree of self-respect. I decided to take advantage of this fact.

I used to explain every new scheme to all the officers. Further, I used to tell them that they have to see that they should explain it to all their junior officers within a specified time limit. I would give instructions that in this manner every staff member should understand the scheme completely and should have learnt it by heart. After the specified time limit, I would pay a surprise visit to any police station and ask any staff member questions relating to what he had been instructed to learn by heart. These surprise questions would confuse the staff members but if they had studied the subject properly they would be able to impart information about the scheme. I would neither reward the member who gave excellent information nor punish those who were unprepared. I would take down the name, buckle number and name of the police station and convey this information to the North region Control Room by wireless. The Control Room In-charge Officer would then convey this information by wireless to the Police Inspector, Asst. Police Inspector, Senior Police Inspector, Asst. Commissioner of Police who had been given the responsibility of ensuring that this staff member learnt what had been assigned to him. For example, police constable Salunkhe of the Samata Nagar police station could not give information about the Mohalla Committee. At the same time, police constable More gave proper information about the Mohalla Committee. No action would be taken on this information conveyed by wireless. But this information helped the concerned officers to know whether the staff members who were under their supervision studied, and if so how. Apart from that, the Addl. Commissioner of Police conducts surprise checks to see if the officers and the staff members are following the instructions given to them and if so, in what manner. The most important aspect here is that the name of the staff member who could not answer questions properly, gets announced all over the region by means of the wireless. So in a way, it is humiliating for him. It also makes all his supervising officers awkward. Constable Salunkhe, who very much wants his basic needs of high self-esteem, pride, connectedness and respect from others to be fulfilled, is deeply ashamed when he is humiliated among his colleagues because of the message given over the wireless. He does not want his negligence, drawbacks and ignorance to become topics for discussion among his colleagues, and solely for this reason he starts studying religiously. Everyone who listens to the wireless struggles to avoid being disgraced like Salunkhe. In fact in the heart of their hearts they wish that they too would be praised over the wireless in much the same manner as Constable More was for his proper knowledge, and so they study with great enthusiasm. The staff members who had got a `C' grade would be made to stand separately at the time of a visit to the police station. Every week, a meeting of the Kamsudhar Mandal would be held at the police station. Each one's work would be evaluated during the course of this meeting. Even those staff members who were lazy started working, albeit unwillingly, so that they would not be insulted in front of their colleagues for not working. This is what is called peer pressure. It has been proved in the north region that this technique is very effective.